In 1578, a high lama of the Gelug school was given the name “Dalai Lama.” What does the Sino-Mongolian translation of “dalai” mean in English?
The bilateral relations between Mongolia and the People’s Republic of China (Mongolian: Монгол, Хятадын харилцаа) have long been determined by the relations between China and the Soviet Union, Mongolia’s other neighbour and main ally until 1990. With the rapprochement between the USSR and China in the late 1980s, Sino-Mongolian relations also began to improve. Since the 1990s, China has become Mongolia’s biggest trading partner, and a number of Chinese businesses are operating in Mongolia.
In December 2016, China blocked its border with Mongolia in protest after Mongolia allowed the Dalai Lama to visit the country despite demands from the Chinese to cancel the visit in November 2016. With the Sino-Soviet split, Mongolia aligned itself with the Soviet Union and asked for the deployment of Soviet forces, leading to security concerns in China.
The 14th Dalai Lama is the current Dalai Lama. Dalai Lamas are important monks of the Gelug school, the newest school of Tibetan Buddhism which is nominally headed by the Ganden Tripas.